Monday, February 16, 2009

Severe Nausea At 38 Wks



blood tests
Note. Blood is made up of a liquid called plasma, and a cellular part or corpuscles. In plasma there is a wide range of substances such as enzymes, minerals, lipids, hormones, sugars, vitamins, protein etc.. The corpuscular part consists of red blood cells or red blood cells from white blood cells or leukocytes and platelets. Through the analysis of blood, not only fail to detect substances that circulate in the body, but you can also tell if an organ is working well or if it has some defect. The tests listed below are the most common. The "normal" values \u200b\u200bof reference on this page may vary depending on the laboratory conducting the analysis, because of different methodologies utilizzate.E 'precise amount that if you get different values \u200b\u200bfrom those considered normal does not necessarily mean that there is an ongoing illness, so there be alarmed, the most 'wise to do that to assess the results of analysis by their physician or a specialist and never, under any circumstances, to improvise and make diagnosis experts on themselves or on others, let alone take drugs without the advice of your physician.
ACE
angiotensin converting enzyme (a protein in the blood) from the inactive form (angiotensin I) in the active (angiotensin II) that narrows blood vessels of the reference values \u200b\u200b6-12 micrograms / l.Valori rates may be caused by liver cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism, renal disease from sarcoidosis.
FOLIC ACID
vitamin essential for the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. And 'present in various foods, particularly liver, milk, eggs and raw vegetables. Reference values \u200b\u200b:3-20 micrograms (mcg) / l.Valori rates may be determined by a vegetarian diet. Lower values \u200b\u200bmay be associated with agranulocytosis caused by alcoholism, anemia, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis evolutionary, pregnancy, renal chronic renal failure, malnutrition, from malignancy, from the use of chemotherapy (drugs active against cancer cells) and progestogens (associations of hormones that are used in the contraceptive pill).
LACTIC ACID
weak acid that is produced by cells during the anaerobic degradation (chemical process that occurs in the absence of oxygen) of glucose. The normal content ranges from 5-18 mg / ml sangue.Un its increase is determined by various causes: alcoholism, anemia, liver cirrhosis, diabetes, excessive sports, chronic renal failure, shock.
URIC ACID
The presence of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. It 's a waste product of metabolism and should be expelled from the body through the kidneys in urine. If it does not, in the blood increases the rate of acid urico.Valori reference: male 3.2 to 8.1 mg/100 ml, females 2.2 to 7.1 mg/100 ml. Values \u200b\u200bare higher than the reference can be caused by alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, on fasting, from eclampsia, by hemolysis, gout, chronic renal failure, leukemia, lymphoma, polycythemia, psoriasis, by cytostatics. Lower values \u200b\u200bmay be determined by reference to anemia, acute hepatitis, pregnancy, Hodgkin's disease, Wilson's disease, myeloma, Fanconi's syndrome, to use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory steroids, steroid, from antimicetici. (Drugs).
ADRENALIN
natural hormone that increases the speed and force of the heartbeat, causing dilation of the airways, improving breathing and is narrow (vasoconstriction) the blood vessels of the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches the muscles, allowing them to meet the additional needs required by the physical effort. It should be remembered that it is not a routine: to make an assessment of doses usually vanilmandelico urinary acid which is a reference metabolita.Valori below 0.5 mcg / ml of blood. Values \u200b\u200bhigher than reference can be caused by pheochromocytoma, a heart attack, hypertension, Cushing's disease, by nefrangiosclerosi. Lower values \u200b\u200bof reference may be caused by serious infections, Addison's disease, Parkinson's disease, syndrome Waterhouse, by adrenalectomy.
ALBUMIN
It 's a protein produced in the liver has many functions, but the most important is to maintain a constant level of fluid in the blood vessels when levels are low, the liquid spread in the tissues, causing swelling. Reference values: 55-65%, or 3.5-5g / 100 ml.Valori higher than normal can be caused by dehydration of sarcoidosis, by B├╝rger's disease or thromboangiitis. Lower values \u200b\u200bof reference may be caused by alcoholism, hereditary deficiency, liver cirrhosis, by collagen, from pregnancy to infections, chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism, leukemia, malnutrition, malignant neoplasms, pancreatitis, from burns.
ETHYL ALCOHOL
Also called ethanol, is present in alcoholic beverages in the blood must be absent. The limit allowed by law to drive ratio must be less than the amount 80mg/100ml.In effects can be summarized as follows: - 100-200mg/100ml euphoric state or 0.1-0.2% - 200-300mg drowsiness / 100 ml or 0.2-0.3% - 300-500mg/100ml comatose or 0.3 to 0.5% - potential death> 500mg/100ml or> 0.5%
Aldosterone
hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex: is of great importance for controlling blood pressure and adjust the concentration of sodium and potassium. Reference values: 10-100 nanogrammi/100ml at rest, after exercise of less than 500 nanogrammi/100 ml.Valori higher than those of reference may be caused by pheochromocytoma, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, nefrangiosclerosi from hypertensive, to use contraception and diuretics. Lower values \u200b\u200bof reference may be caused by diabetes mellitus, alcoholism by (Used to make use of alcoholic beverages), from full-term pregnancy, adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, adreno genital syndrome, by adrenalectomy.
ALFA 1 Globulin
globuline.Valori belongs to the group of reference: 2-5 g/100ml.Valori from 0.2 to 0.4% or higher than those of reference may be caused by brucellosis, hepatic chronic renal failure, obstructive jaundice, acute leukemia, malignant neoplasms, acute articular rheumatism, from sepsis, trauma, burns. Lower values \u200b\u200bmay be determined by reference enteropathies, acute viral hepatitis, chronic liver disease, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, by Wilson disease.
ALFA 2 Globulin
globuline.Valori belongs to the group of reference 7 to 10% or 0.4 - 0.8 g/100 ml. Values \u200b\u200bare higher than the reference can be caused by cholecystitis, cardiac infarction, chronic renal failure, acute leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, malignant neoplasms. Lower values \u200b\u200bof reference may be caused by gastroenteritis, by steatorrhea.
ALT
See Transaminase GPT.
AMYLASE
An enzyme that is involved in hydrolyzing starch introduced mainly in the pancreas, less glands salivari.Valori reference 10 to 220 U / l.Valori higher than those of reference may be caused by alcoholism, from gallstones by ectopic pregnancy, chronic renal failure, measles, mumps epidemic, acute pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, by use of diuretics, to be anti-inflammatory steroids, from steroidi.Valori lower than those of reference may be caused by liver cirrhosis, acute viral hepatitis, of poisoning by phosphoric esters, by necrosis of the pancreas.
ALFA 1 O ANTITRYPSIN
protein that inhibits the enzymes that break down proteins, trypsin or chymotrypsin reference values \u200b\u200bfrom 190 to 350 mg/100 ml.Valori higher than those of reference may be caused by AIDS, by collagen, from serious infections, malignancies, by use of contraccettivi.Valori lower than those of reference may be caused by congenital deficiency, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary emphysema, peptic ulcers, burns.

See PT APTT or prothrombin time.
AST
See Transaminase GOT.
BUN
It 's the rate of nitrogen in the blood and indicates the precise function of the kidneys, different values \u200b\u200bfrom the reference point to a defective blood clearance by reni.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 10 to 50 ml.Valori mg/100 greater than normal can be caused by cirrhosis, by collagen diabetes mellitus, dehydration, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis, gout, from leptospirosis, multiple myeloma, by nefrangiosclerosi from pyelonephritis, Conn's syndrome, shock, renal TB, trauma, less from ustioni.Valori than normal may be caused by low-protein diet, acute viral hepatitis, hypopituitarism, hepatic necrosis, by use of salicylates (drugs) and glucocortisoidi.
Basophils
One of the forms of white blood cells or leukocytes. Normal values \u200b\u200b0-2% of total leukocytes. Values \u200b\u200bare higher than normal may be caused by acute hepatitis, chronic renal failure, leukemia, measles, whooping cough by, by ulcerative colitis. Values \u200b\u200blower than normal may be caused by pregnancy, acute infections, hyperthyroidism, by estrogen use.
BILIRUBIN
It 's a pigment contained in bile of man. It is reformed following the demolition of hemoglobin in red blood cells belonging dismantled at the end of their lives (120 days). This bilirubin is transported by the blood that turns to make it soluble in acqua.Si divided into direct bilirubin (already made by the liver), indirect (not yet "processed" by the liver). If the liver is sick, or red blood cells are destroyed in excess ( hemolytic anemia) bilirubin increases. Its increase is accompanied by staining of the conjunctiva of the eye and skin (jaundice).
DIRECT BILIRUBIN
See Bilirubina.Valori 0.2mg/100ml.Valori below normal above normal can be caused by liver cirrhosis, toxic hepatitis, severe infections, liver neoplasms, toxoplasmosis, from the use of contraceptives of cytostatics, of tetracycline (antibiotics) of anti-inflammatory steroids, steroids.
INDIRECT BILIRUBIN
See Bilirubina.Valori a1mg/100ml.Valori below normal above normal can be determined by hemolytic anemia, pernicious anemia, from hematomas, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hyperthyroidism, by Gilbert's disease, actions aimed at reducing the abnormal pressure due to excess fluid (CSF, blood), by use of steroids by rifampicin (antibacterial drug used to treat tuberculosis).
FOOTBALL
E 'enters a metal (such as ions, positively charged particles) in most biological processes. The search for this substance is very much in demand, because calcium is essential for our body. is not only essential for the formation and development of bones, teeth and nails, but also in the process of blood clotting for the activity of the muscles and central nervous system, digestion of certain foods. The body absorbs it through food, which are particularly rich in milk and dairy products, eggs, fish, fruit, green leafy vegetables. Its presence in the blood is called serum calcium. A marked rise (hypercalcemia) may cause calcifications, abnormal electrocardiogram, constipation, nausea, kidney stones. A marked decrease causing tetany (involuntary muscle contraction). Shall be considered the normal range 9 to 11 mg/100 ml of blood (in children 10 to 12) values \u200b\u200bhigher than those regarded as normal may be caused by acromegaly, the use of contraceptives, drug cortisone, diuretic, hyperparathyroidism, from iperprotidemia, hypersensitivity to vitamin D, hypervitaminosis D, leukemia, lymphoma, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, Paget's disease, Von Recklinghausen's disease from sarcoidosis, from thyrotoxicosis, by use of drugs containing litio.Valori below normal can be caused by vitamin D deficiency, liver cirrhosis, dietary deficiency, chronic renal failure, hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia from, acute pancreatitis, by parathyroidectomy by steatorrhea.
CALCITONIN
hormone produced by groups of cells and that, in humans, are located in the thyroid, which controls the level of calcium in the blood is slowing down the rate at which calcium is released from the same bone (lowers blood calcium). Are considered as normal values \u200b\u200bbelow 15 picograms (pg) / ml. Values \u200b\u200bare higher than normal may be caused by alcoholism, pregnancy, cancer of the breast, lung and thyroid.
CERUPLASMINA
Globulin produced by the liver, allows the transport of copper in the blood. Are considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 20 to 50 mg/100 ml.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by cirrhosis of the liver by malignant lymphogranuloma, Hodgkin's disease, rheumatism in the limbs, by use of estroprogestinici.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by alcoholism, chronic hepatitis, malnutrition, Wilson's disease.
CHOLESTEROL
It 's a fat, important constituent of body cells. May originate from food (milk and dairy products, meat, eggs etc..), But most are manufactured by the liver from a wide range of substances. The search for this substance in the blood helps with the detection of triglycerides, fats in the body to consider. Can be eliminated (through the bile acid synthesis) by the liver (liver) or via the gut. Is differentiated into two groups :1-"good" cholesterol or HDL because if the majority of cholesterol in the blood is in the form high density lipoprotein (high density lipoproteins, HLD) seems to have a protective effect against arterial disease, because the HDL molecules have a very large size and these allow them to "sweep" of the arteries and physically clean them up by atherosclerotic deposits , also have the function of HDL cholesterol back to the liver, thus avoiding the blood, so the HDL cholesterol is very useful and it is important that its level is high, greater than 35 mg / dl, a person who has a cholesterol but a higher total to HDL level greater than 35 is not at risk, as a person with a high total cholesterol, low HDL has a level of less than 35.2-Cholesterol "Bad" or LDL, because if the majority of cholesterol is in the form of low-density lipoprotein (Law density lipoproteins, LDL) increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is an essential substance, which represents the chemical basis for the synthesis of some hormones and entered the game as a "brick" in the formation of all cell membranes. Are considered normal values \u200b\u200b120 to 220 mg/100 ml for total cholesterol, 40 - 80 mg/100 ml for HDL, 70 to 180 mg/100 ml for LDL. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by diabetes, chronic hepatitis, by contraceptive use, intoxication, by hypoproteinemia, hypothyroidism, lupus erythematosus, Cushing's disease, obesity, pancreatitis acute syndrome nefrosica.Valori below what are considered normal may be caused by anemia, chronic liver disease from terminal to hyperthyroidism, Addison's disease, malnutrition, sepsis, malabsorption, neoplastic diseases.
CREATININE
It 's a blood component that is eliminated in the urine indicates kidney function as the same is eliminated by the kidneys through urine. If the presence of creatinine in the blood is too high, this means that the kidneys are unable to pass it in urine and therefore do not perform their job well. In some cases the fact of eating too much meat may help raise the level of creatinine in sangue.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 0 to 1.5 mg / dl.Valori higher than those regarded as normal may be caused by kidney failure, from dermatomyositis, excessive sport, hyperthyroidism, myasthenia, trauma, ustioni.Valori from below can be caused by anemia, muscle atrophy, hypothyroidism, leukemia, from myoglobinuria.
glucose curve
Consideration of glucose tolerance which allows a certain diagnosis of diabetes. Is done by fasting blood samples and after the introduction of 100 grams of glucosio.Valori normal limits: - fasting 120 mg/100 ml- 170 mg/100 ml after 30 minutes-60 minutes after 170 mg/100 ml-130 mg/100 ml after two hours, three hours after 110 mg/100 ml
ELECTROPHORESIS
electrophoresis analysis of serum proteins present in blood serum. The whey proteins are very important values, which may shed light on many diseases. Most of these proteins produced by the liver and certain types of proteins are released into the blood cells of the immune system, ie the system of the body's natural defenses. is a test that must be done on an empty stomach. The use of antibiotics can give incorrect results. With this examination are identified, in particular, the following protein (see individual entries): albumin, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin.
hematocrit (HMT)
exam that measures the percentage quantity of red blood cells than the liquid fraction of blood, and its symbol is considered normal HMT.Valori are 38 to 52% for men, 36 - 46% the donna.Valori higher than those considered normal may be caused by alcoholism, diabetes, acute renal failure, peritonitis, polycythemia, from polyglobulia, by use of diuretics, burns, vomiting, lower than those from disidratazione.Valori considered normal may be caused by anemia, bone marrow aplasia, iron deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency, liver cirrhosis, by collagen, by bleeding, serious infections, chronic renal failure, leukemia, malignant tumors.
CBC
E 'blood test done most. It includes counting the number of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cell (WBC) and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as the quantitative determination of hemoglobin. With the differential, the laboratory provides the percentage of each type of white blood cell (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, lymphocytes). In conclusion, the CBC is subdivided internally into several "subgroup" depending on whether they relate to now one now the other blood components. They include the hematocrit (HMT), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell count, platelet count (see individual entries). Is also known as blood count, which literally means "measuring the color of blood and the number of its cells, ie blood. " Implies a sampling of a few drops of blood and does not cause a nuisance minimo.L 'haemogram normal (there are variations depending on age and sex) is as follows: Formula leukocyte-leukocyte milioni/mmc- Erythrocytes 4-5 4-8 mila/mmc- plates until 150000/mmc- Hemoglobin (HBG) 16% - Lymphocytes 20-35% - 3-7% Monocytes - Neutrophils 55-65% - 0-3% Eosinophils - Basophils 0-2%
hemoglobin (Hb)
protein, the main constituent of red blood cells, used primarily for transporting oxygen from the lungs to tissues in his journey back to hemoglobin in venous blood carries carbon dioxide to the lungs but from which it is expelled with the exhaled air. Its formation takes place simultaneously in the bone marrow to that of immature erythrocytes, in a red blood cell, there are approximately 350 million hemoglobin molecules, each of which can carry four molecules of ossigeno.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bthan those between 14-18 g / 100 ml for men g/100 ml and 12-16 for females Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by diarrhea, dehydration, emphysema, polycythemia, from polyglobulia, shock, burns, repeated transfusions Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by bone marrow aplasia, of collagen, iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, hemorrhage, liver disease, serious infections, chronic renal failure, leukemia, Cooley's disease, from Alzheimer's Crhon from metrorrhagia by malignancy, peptic ulcer, Hodgkin's disease.
Eosinophils
It 's a variety of white blood cells normal to 250/mmc values \u200b\u200bhigher than considered normal may be caused by allergies, eczema, granulomatosis, leukemia, Addison's disease, Hodgkin's disease, malignant neoplasms, from radiation, from scarlet fever Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by agranulocytosis, hepatic chronic kidney by surgery, hypothyroidism, anaphylactic shock, trauma, from the use of cortisone drugs
erythrocytes (RBC)
O red blood corpuscles that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, the average diameter of 8 microns (8 thousandths of a millimeter) disc-shaped normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 4,800,000 to 5,600,000 / mmc (cubic millimeter) for men and 4.6 to 5.2 million / MMC the woman. At birth they are much more, between 7 and 8 million / mmc, but after a few days down to normal. Since the 5 liters of blood, we have a total of 25 trillion red blood cells (side by side would cover an area roughly the size of a football field). On examination it is possible to calculate other parameters which also report the values \u200b\u200bconsidered normal: - MCD (Mean corpuscular Diameter = average diameter of each RBC) 7-8 micron - MCV (mean corpuscular volume = average volume of red blood cells) HMT / No. 80-94 million red blood cells in femtolitri - MCH (Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin = amount of hemoglobin in each red blood cell) HB / no red blood cells 27-32 million in picograms - MCHC (Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration = average concentration of hemoglobin in each blood cell) Hb / HMT 28-36 g/100 ml of only red blood cells - MCT (Mean corpuscular Thickness = average thickness of each red blood cell) 1 0.7 to 2, 5 micron - PCV (Packed Cell Volume = volume of stored blood cells compared to whole blood) woman man 36-47% 40-50% higher than normal values \u200b\u200bmay be caused by the altitude, respiratory failure, polycythemia from thalassemia. Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by anemia or bleeding.
ESTROGENS
Female hormones in girls who drive the development of the female genitalia; are secreted by the ovary, the adrenal gland, placenta during pregnancy, from the testicle. Regulate the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, fertility, the characters sessuali.I normal values \u200b\u200bvary according to age, sex, stage of the cycle, type of estrogeno.Valori higher than those regarded as normal may be caused by cirrhosis of the liver of pregnancy, from cancer of the ovary, adrenal and testis, by using contraccettivi.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by gestosis, hypogonadism, hypopituitarism, hypoadrenalism by.
FACTOR II OR PROTHROMBIN
Globulin involved in the process of blood clotting. It defines the protrombinemia presence of prothrombin in sangue.Si far as prothrombin activity (70 - 110%). Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by excessive use of vitamin K and contraccettivi.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by liver cirrhosis, by collagen, hepatitis, vitamin K deficiency, chronic renal failure, pancreatitis, by use of salicylates, antibiotics, anticoagulants.
FERRITIN
Indicates the iron in the liver, ie, the iron reserves are considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 5 to 177 ng (nanogram, 1 ng = 1 billionth of a gram) / 100ml. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be determined by introduction of excessive iron, emacromatosi, leukemia, malignant neoplasms, by trasfusioni.Valori below what are considered normal may be caused by little introduction of iron from bleeding from pregnancy.
IRON
essential element for some enzymes and the formation of the pigment of red blood cells and therefore it is essential for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the human body. Its concentration in the blood is called serum iron. The iron "moves" in the body by means of other substances, proteins, that they capture and deposit in tissues, or put it in circolo.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bof 37-147 mcg (micrograms) / 100 ml. The value of iron, however, varies greatly: it is highest in the morning and change depending on the condition of the individual in that specific time, for example in the course of infection is lowered. To obtain more precise results, you need another substance dose, ferritin, if this goes down, it means that the iron deposits are very scarsi.Valori higher than those considered normal may be caused by aplastic anemia, Mediterranean anemia, hepatitis viral acute leukemia, by trasfusioni.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by breastfeeding, anemia due to lack of introduction of foods with iron (found in liver, eggs, fish, green leafy vegetables, in nuts and lemons), diabetes, hemorrhage, by age, chronic infections, renal failure, malignancies.
FIBRINOGEN
protein (globulin) which occurs with other coagulation factors to promote blood clotting, as it is transformed into fibrin (protein filaments that form the scaffolding of a clot). They are considered normal values 200-400 mg/100 ml.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, from arteriosclerosis, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, gout, pregnancy, myocardial infarction, renal failure, multiple myeloma, by contraceptive use, trauma, from ustioni.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by prostate cancer, hemorrhage, poisoning by phosphorus, from serious infections, hepatic insufficiency, by administering anticoagulants.
TOTAL AND PROSTATIC ACID PHOSPHATASE AND
'an enzyme detectable in the blood produced by the prostate, spleen, liver, red cells, platelets and bone marrow. The dosage of the fraction used in particular for prostate or not to confirm the suspicion of prostate cancer are considered normal values \u200b\u200bof prostatic acid phosphatase up to 4.2 mU / ml for men and up to 10 for the total acid phosphatase and up to 3 mU / ml higher than those for donne.Valori considered normal may be caused by prostate cancer, by hemolysis, myocardial infarction, hyperparathyroidism, hypertrophy of the prostate, Gaucher disease (hereditary disease in a family business, due to accumulation of a fatty substance, the cerasina, and other similar cells in the spleen, lungs and endocrine glands), Paget's disease, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, by osteopetrosis.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
E 'an enzyme detectable in the blood, produced by the intestines, liver, bones and placenta, can be found in the bile ducts. Its assay is performed to determine, in particular, any disease regarded ossa.sono normal range 90-250 mU / ml in adults and 100-700 mU / ml in children above those considered normal values \u200b\u200bmay be determined by deforming arthritis, biliary cancer, hepatitis, Paget's disease, liver and bone metastases, myeloma, mononucleosis, from osteomyelitis, rickets, from sarcoidosis, bone fractures, renal failure, osteogenic sarcoma, from diets rich in protein. Its increase, along with the increase of transaminases (see), bilirubin (see) and gamma GT (see), it can almost certainly rule the presence of an alteration to the streets biliari.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by anemia by age, hypothyroidism, malnutrition.
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
products in the liver, are involved in the formation of lipoproteins (HDL, LDL). Shall be considered normal 100-300 mg/100 ml.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by bulimia, cirrhosis impairment, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, from hyperlipidemia, hyperthyroidism, obesity, pancreatitis cronica.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by anorexia, by fasting, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, by steatorrhea.
FACTOR II OR PROTHROMBIN
Globulin involved in the process of blood clotting. We define protrombinemia the presence of prothrombin in sangue.Si far as prothrombin activity (70 - 110%). Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by excessive use of vitamin K and contraccettivi.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by liver cirrhosis, by collagen, hepatitis, vitamin K deficiency, chronic renal failure, pancreatitis, by use of salicylates, antibiotics, anticoagulants.
FERRITIN
Indicates the iron in the liver, ie, the iron reserves are considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 5 to 177 ng (nanogram, 1 ng = 1 billionth of a gram) / 100ml. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by excessive introduction of iron, emacromatosi, leukemia, malignant neoplasms, by trasfusioni.Valori below what are considered normal may be caused by a short introduction of iron from bleeding from pregnancy.
IRON
essential element for some enzymes and the formation of the pigment of red blood cells and therefore it is essential for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the human body. Its concentration in the blood is called serum iron. The iron "moves" in the body by means of other substances, proteins, that they capture and deposit in tissues, or put it in circolo.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bof 37-147 mcg (micrograms) / 100 ml. The value Iron, however, is very variable: it is highest in the morning and change depending on the condition of the individual in that specific time, for example in the course of infection is lowered. To obtain more precise results, you need another substance dose, ferritin, if this goes down, it means that the iron deposits are very scarsi.Valori higher than those considered normal may be caused by aplastic anemia, Mediterranean anemia, hepatitis viral acute leukemia, by trasfusioni.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by breastfeeding, anemia due to lack of introduction of foods with iron (found in liver, eggs, fish, green leafy vegetables, in nuts and lemon), diabetes, hemorrhage, by age, chronic infections, renal failure, malignancies.
FIBRINOGEN
protein (globulin) which occurs with other coagulation factors to promote blood clotting, as it is transformed into fibrin (protein filaments that form the scaffolding of a clot). They are considered normal values 200-400 mg/100 ml.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, from arteriosclerosis, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, gout, pregnancy, myocardial infarction, renal failure, multiple myeloma, from the use of contraceptives, by trauma, from ustioni.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by prostate cancer, hemorrhage, poisoning by phosphorus, from serious infections, hepatic insufficiency, by administering anticoagulants.
TOTAL AND PROSTATIC ACID PHOSPHATASE AND
'an enzyme detectable in the blood produced by the prostate, spleen, liver, red cells, platelets and bone marrow. The dosage of the fraction used in particular for prostate or not to confirm the suspicion of prostate cancer are considered normal values \u200b\u200bof prostatic acid phosphatase up to 4.2 mU / ml for men and up to 10 for the total acid phosphatase and up to 3 mU / ml for donne.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by prostate cancer, by hemolysis, myocardial infarction, hyperparathyroidism, hypertrophy of the prostate, Gaucher disease (hereditary disease in a family business, due to accumulation of a fatty substance, the cerasina , and other similar cells in the spleen, lungs and endocrine glands), Paget's disease, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, by osteopetrosis.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
E 'an enzyme detectable in the blood, produced by the intestines, liver, bones and placenta, can be found in the bile ducts. Its assay is performed to determine, in particular, any disease ossa.sono considered the normal range 90-250 mU / ml in adults and 100-700 mU / ml in children above those considered normal values \u200b\u200bmay be determined by deforming arthritis, biliary cancer, hepatitis, Paget's disease, by liver and bone metastases, myeloma, mononucleosis, from osteomyelitis, rickets, from sarcoidosis, bone fractures, renal failure, osteogenic sarcoma, from diets rich in protein. Its increase, along with the increase of transaminases (see), bilirubin (see) and gamma GT (see), it can almost certainly rule the presence of an alteration to the streets biliari.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by anemia by age, by hypothyroidism, malnutrition.
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
products in the liver, are involved in the formation of lipoproteins (HDL, LDL). Shall be considered normal 100-300 mg/100 ml.Valori above those considered normal may be caused by bulimia, cirrhosis impairment, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, from hyperlipidemia, hyperthyroidism, obesity, pancreatitis cronica.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by anorexia, by fasting, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, by steatorrhea.
HMT
See Hematocrit
IMMUNOGLOBULINS
See gamma globulin.
INSULIN
hormone produced by the pancreas and placed in a circle whose task is to allow the cells to use the glucosio.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200b10-40 microU / l.Valori above those considered normal may be determined by alcoholism, cirrhosis of the liver by diet, chronic liver disease, from insulinoma, Cushing's syndrome, from the use of diuretics and cortisonici.Valori below those considered normal can be determined from juvenile diabetes, pancreatitis postalcolica by pancreatectomy, a therapy with insulin.
white blood cell (WBC)
Also called white blood cells are counted with special equipment counting. There are several types: basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils. Their function is to defend the body against infection. The examination shows that the proportion of different white blood cells in the blood is called white blood cell count (see blood count). is very important when there is an increase of white blood cells, know what type is increased: in this way, you can determine what type of infection is in progress. To get a clearer picture to see the individual items (basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils). Shall be considered normal in a number of 4000-10000 cubic milliliter of sangue.Valori rates may be caused by inflammation or infection: If neutrophils increase the infection is bacterial in nature, if lymphocytes tends to increase the viral origin, if those increases eosinophils may think or to an allergy or a parasite infestation. When the white blood cells reach very high peaks (from 30 thousand to hundreds of thousands) will have leukemia.
LYMPHOCYTES
cells belonging to a group of white blood cells essential to the functioning of the body's immune system. Shall be considered a normal number of 1500-3000 in a cubic millimeter of blood values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, gout, infections, Crohn's disease, mononucleosis, for pertussis, by use of drugs, from vaccinazioni.Valori below those considered normal may be caused by AIDS, from bone marrow aplasia, renal failure, by irradiation, lymphoma, lupus erythematosus, by Hodkin's disease, by miastemia, from malignancy, from the use of cytostatic drugs and steroids.
LIPASE
E 'an enzyme capable of breaking down triglycerides (see) in other substances (glycerol and fatty acids) is produced by pancreas.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200b8-60 U / l.Valori higher than those Reference may be caused by anesthesia, from gallstones, cancer of the pancreas, pancreatitis, peritonitis, by use of drugs anticoagulanti.Valori lower than those of reference may be caused by cirrhosis.
LYSOZYME
E 'an enzyme found in white blood cells in the nasal mucus, lacrimal glands, and especially in the saliva has anti-infective action kills germs and viruses and is one of the natural defenses available to the body . setpoints 2-12 micrograms (mcg) / ml higher than the reference values \u200b\u200bmay result from kidney infections, leukemia, polycythemia, from sarcoidosis, ustioni.Valori be lower than those of reference may be determined by granulocytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia.
MAGNESIUM
metallic element that plays many key roles in the body: it is essential for the formation of bones and teeth, muscle contraction, for the transmission of nerve impulses and the activation of many enzimi.Valori reference 1.5 -2.5 milliequivalents (mEq) / l.Valori higher than those of reference may be caused by diabetes insipidus, by fasting, by dehydration, excessive swallowing, fever, chronic renal failure, hypothyroidism, by sweating, by use diuretici.Valori lower than those of reference can be caused by alcoholism, removal from the intestine, liver cirrhosis, by cytostatics, deficient absorption, diarrhea, from diabetes mellitus, diuretic, chronic glomerulonephritis, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatitis, trauma, burns.
MCV
E 'mean corpuscular volume of normal blood cells rossi.Valori: 82-96 micron3.Valori higher than normal may be caused by alcoholism, megaloblastic anemia, enteritis, metastasis, from less than sferocitosi.Valori than normal may be determined by hemoglobinopathies, Cooley's disease, thalassemia, malignant tumors, anemia ferropriva.
Myoglobin
E 'protein, "twin" of hemoglobin found in muscle, which gives their characteristic color rosso.Valori normal: it must be absent in sangue.La presence in the blood can be caused by alcoholism, with a family history, from heart attacks, by hyperthermia, by physical exertion, shock, trauma, burns.
MONOCYTES
It 's a type of white blood cells (see) blood cells are large, larger than the other leucociti.Sono considered a normal range 2-12% of the total number of leukocytes (absolute num 200-1000). Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by collagen, from endocarditis, leukemia, Crohn's disease, Hodgkin's disease, mononucleosis, malignant neoplasms, from ulcerative colitis, from sarcoidosis, from typhoid. Values below what are considered normal may be caused by anemia, by irradiation.
neutrophils (Neutrophil granulocytes)
belong to the series of white blood cells and represent the largest class, generally increase in infections batteriche.Sono considered a normal value 40-75% of the total leukocytes (number 1800 -7200). Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhage, gout, pregnancy, cardiac infarction, acute infections such as appendicitis, acute leukemia, malignant neoplasms, pancreatitis, by use of cortisone drugs, burns, lower than those from vaccinazioni.Valori regarded as normal may be caused by agranulocytosis, anemia, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, influenza, lupus erythematosus, malaria, mononucleosis, measles, mumps, rubella, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, from poisoning benzene, lead, and antiblastic by radiation therapy.
PLATES
are the smallest elements of the blood that help it to clot, joining together in particular situations (injuries, wounds, bleeding), stop bleeding. The aggregation is an unfortunate phenomenon when it tends to occur in normal conditions, because it can lead to thrombosis. Their decline due to changes haemostasis with an extension of the bleeding time. Seng taken as a reference number from 150,000 to 400,000 per cubic millimeter of sangue.Valori higher than those used as reference point can be caused by cancer, iron deficiency from too much exercise, rheumatic fever, with inflammation, leukemia , Hodkin's disease, osteomyelitis of, by, polycythemia, by splenectomy, trauma, from the use of vitamin B12.Valori lower than those used as reference point can be determined from aplastic anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, viral infections from leptospirosis, leukemia, lymphoma, malaria, purpura, transfusion, use of antibiotics, barbiturates, diuretics, of phenylbutazone (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID), used to relieve the symptoms of certain types of arthritis, hypoglycemic agents (drugs that lower blood glucose for diabetics by stimulating production of insulin from the pancreas are tablets taken by mouth), PAS (which stands for para-aminosalicylates indicate acid, a drug used to treat tuberculosis), and sulfonamides of piramidone (category of drugs because historians were the first to be used against infections, are now largely replaced by antibiotics).
POTASSIUM
It 's a mineral present in the cells and blood, it depends on the activity of the muscles, not the least of which contributes to heart to regulate the heartbeat, regulates the body's water balance. Its presence in serum is minimal and is located inside the cellula.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bfrom 3.5 to 5.2 milliequivalents (mEq) / l.Valori higher than those regarded as normal may be caused by diabetes mellitus, excessive introduction , infections, renal failure, trauma, from the use of chemotherapy and penicillin, burns. Very low sodium and potassium is a condition that involves alterations of cell membranes, which may involve changes in muscolare.Valori below what are considered normal may be caused by diarrhea, by use of cortisone, malnutrition, Addison's disease, by use diuretics, and vomiting. A situation with very little sodium and potassium indicates that reduced the liquid part of blood, which causes impairment of the muscles.

PSA is a PSA specifico.Valori normal: 0.0-4.0 ng / mL.Valori higher than those regarded as normal may be caused by prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate inflammation.
O PT prothrombin time and PTT or APTT
These tests usually required before surgery, in the case of some blood diseases (such as haemophilia) or simply as a check-up. There are laboratory tests that allow to assess the clotting time of plasma. Coagulation is the process that is triggered when there is a break of one or more blood vessels and, through a complex mechanism involving several substances, the bleeding stops. And just as prothrombin (see) is a protein that performs this delicate mechanism of repair of the rupture of blood vessels. In normal subjects the prothrombin time (PT) is 12-15 seconds (depending on the laboratory methods) corresponding to prothrombin activity 100%. These values, if both are altered in positive or negative, are indicative of coagulation problems, difficulties that must be well evaluated by your doctor. For the APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) in normal subjects, according to the methods of analysis, can be up to 40 seconds. As the prothrombin time (PT) is increased, or less than the plasma and coagulation, decrease the percentage of 100%, values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by congenital defects, diseases of the liver, some anemias , in the course of oral anticoagulant therapy (widely used in cardiovascular disease). As for the APTT time is extended to the case of haemophilia and during treatment with heparin (anticoagulant). Lower values \u200b\u200bof reference (the blood clots more easily) may be caused by administration of vitamin K, use of drugs (eg corticosteroids), from thrombosis.
COPPER
metallic element which forms an essential part of various enzymes and is necessary in small quantities. E 'key with the iron in hemoglobin synthesis and then for the production of red blood cells to carry oxygen to various tessuti.Sono considered normal values \u200b\u200bof 60-160 micrograms (mcg) / 100 ml.Valori higher than normal may be caused by anemia, liver cirrhosis, by collagen, by use of contraceptives by excessive ingestion, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, by inflammation, leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, by malignancies. Values \u200b\u200blower than normal may be caused by poor nutrition, anemia, deficiency of absorption, renal failure, by steatorrhea, burns, in Wilson disease.
SODIUM
element which, together with potassium and other substances, regulates body fluid volume, maintains normal heart rhythm and is responsible for muscle contractions. The level of sodium in the blood is controlled by the kidneys that remove any excess urine. More than table salt, the main dietary sources are processed foods, cheese, bread and cereals, meat and smoked fish, pickled or preserved. The pickles will contain large quantities. is a major component of plasma, it is present in the liquid (blood serum). Are considered normal values \u200b\u200b135-146 milliequivalents (mEq) per liter Values \u200b\u200bare higher than normal may be caused by iperaldostenorismo, diabetes, diarrhea, excessive ingestion, edema, fever, Cushing's syndrome, from sweating, from the use of cortisone drugs, burns. Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by acidosis, hepatic cirrhosis, heart failure, decompensated diabetes, Addison's disease, from nephrosis, by use of diuretics, and vomiting.
Prothrombin Time PT
View or time prothrombin and PTT or APTT
TESTOSTERONE
male hormone produced by the testis, ovary and adrenal glands. Adjust the primary and secondary sexual characteristics (eg, beard) in men and stimulates sexual desire. Are considered normal values \u200b\u200b5-12 ng / ml in adult humans and 0.1 to 1.2 ng / ml in adult women. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by adrenal hyperplasia, ovarian neoplasms, adrenal, testis, Stein-Leventhal syndrome, from the use of contraceptives and androgens, virilization of female values \u200b\u200blower than those regarded as normal may be caused by congenital heart disease, by castration, cryptorchidism, liver failure and chronic renal failure, male hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, by irradiation, from Mongolia, from obesity, mumps, Klinelfeter syndrome, Turner syndrome, trauma, by estrogen use.
Transaminase GOT and GPT
This enzymatic substances (proteins) that are within the cells of the liver. More than the bilirubin (see), its value is useful in evaluating the proper functioning of the liver may also indicate the health of the heart and skeletal. They are divided into: transaminase GPT or ALT, which relate mainly to the liver and transaminases GOT or AST above which apply to the heart and skeleton. The assessment of transaminases is often required or routinely prescribed to control the liver.
Transaminase GOT or AST
very important enzyme, called "glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase" in code that is defined GOT or AST (aspartate transferase). is present in the liver and is analyzed to study the conditions of this organ, but also to assess any injuries or disorders of the heart muscle of those muscles that coordinate the movements of scheletro.Valori normal range up to 40-45 U / l in adults and up to 80 U / l in children values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by alcoholism, asthma, cirrhosis of the liver dystrophy muscle, hepatitis, gout, myocardial infarction, by surgery, by leptospirosis, obstructive jaundice, liver metastases, mononucleosis, pancreatitis. Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by diabetes, dialysis, from pregnancy.
Transaminase GPT or ALT
very important enzyme in the liver. It's called glutamic pyruvic transaminase ", abbreviated GPT or ALT (alanine aminotransferase), GPT transaminases give the exact evaluation of the severity of the liver. Normal values \u200b\u200bshould be between 10 and 40 U / l for men and between 5 and 35 U / l for women. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal can be caused by cirrhosis of the liver, by use of contraceptives, muscular dystrophy, by hemolysis, hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, liver metastases, mononucleosis, obesity, pancreatitis, from circulatory failure, trauma.
TRIGLYCERIDES
fats are produced in the liver or introduced with food. Combined with higher cholesterol, higher triglycerides is a risk factor because it damages arteries. Triglycerides are the sole function of "supply" of fat on the body, that is not immediately provide energy (as glucose) but are only used in times of emergency, ie when the body needs energy. They enter the body along with food (especially butter, cheese and fatty meats) and not just the gut absorbs them, are captured by specific proteins, chilomicromi, and transported to the liver and adipose tissue to be immaganizzati. At a time when the body needs energy, other proteins (called VLDL) affect stocks and carry triglycerides into the circulation. Are considered normal 40-170 mg/100 ml and the values \u200b\u200bare very impressionable it from immediately prior to the levy, if you eat fatty foods in the days before the exam, you can get up to their level, even the ' SSW is doubtful that alcohol effect. Values \u200b\u200babove those considered normal may be caused by alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, renal failure, hypothyroidism, obesity, acute pancreatitis. If their growth is strongly associated with decreased values \u200b\u200bof HDL cholesterol (see), also represent a risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Lower values \u200b\u200bare considered normal may be caused by anemia, oral contraceptives and pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, from starvation, malnutrition, from senility (changes in mental capacity that occur as a result of aging), burns.
VES
acronym that stands for "Erythrocyte sedimentation rate" basically calculates the time it takes the solid part of blood (red) separates from the liquid (plasma). Shall be considered normal values \u200b\u200b2-10 mm / hour for men, 0-20 mm / hour for women. It is not very precise values \u200b\u200bas the ESR may be normal even if the infection is already in place, or it can be high when it has already recovered and is therefore more necessary than ever to the doctor's opinion. Salora higher than those of reference may be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease, pregnancy, heart attack, heart infections, by inflammation, renal failure, leukemia, Hodgkin's disease by malignancy, shock, TB, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, toxoplasmosis. Salora lower than those of reference may be caused by allergies, by Microcythemia from terminal cancer, polycythemia, by use of steroids and anticoagulants.
VITAMIN A
soluble in fat (fat soluble), which is essential for growth and the formation of normal bones and teeth in children, for the performance of view, to protect the urinary tract infections and for maintaining a skin sana.Si found in liver, cod liver oil, egg yolk, milk and dairy products, margarine and various vegetable and fruits such as carrots, pumpkin, kale, broccoli, spinach, apricots and pesche.Valori normal: 20-60 mcg / dl (micrograms / deciliter). Values \u200b\u200bare higher than normal may be caused by excessive introduction with food or use of vitaminizing. Excessive intake of vitamin A (hypervitaminosis A) can lead to very serious toxic reactions (liver disease, death). All fat-soluble vitamins can make side effects from accumulation. Values \u200b\u200blower than normal may be caused by diabetes, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, from ulcerative colitis.
VITAMIN B1
Also known as thiamin, is soluble in water (soluble) and plays an essential role in the activities of several enzymes involved in the division and the utilization and activity of the nerves, muscles and heart. And 'present in most foods that have not been refined. Particularly rich sources of this vitamin are wheat germ, bran, cereals, wholemeal bread, pasta, liver, kidney, pork, fish, beans, nuts and more. Normal values: 2-5 mcg / dl (micrograms / deciliter). Values \u200b\u200bhigher than normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or excess vitaminizing. The excess is removed from the body and this goes for all vitamins idrosolubili.Valori lower than normal (hypovitaminosis) can be caused by alcoholism, malnutrition, use of sulfa drugs, malabsorption.
VITAMIN B2
Also called riboflavin, soluble in water (water soluble). E 'is essential for the activity of several enzymes involved in the breakdown and utilization of sugars, fats and proteins for energy production in cells, for the use of other B vitamins and hormone production by the adrenal glands. Normal values: 2-4 mcg/100 ml (milliliters microgrammo/100). Values \u200b\u200babove normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or vitaminizing. Values \u200b\u200blower than the normal (hypovitaminosis) may be caused by ileitis, malnutrition, parasites from from ulcerative colitis by antibiotics, malabsorption.
VITAMIN B6
Also known as pyridoxine, soluble in water (water soluble). It is particularly important for the activity of various enzymes and hormones involved in the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, production of red blood cells and antibodies, in the activity of the digestive system and nervous system and maintenance of healthy skin. Adequate food sources are liver, poultry, pork, fish, whole grains, wheat germ, bananas, potatoes and dry beans. Normal values: 50-250 mg / ml (milligrams per milliliter). Values \u200b\u200bin excess of normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or vitaminizing. Values \u200b\u200bbelow normal (hypovitaminosis) may be caused by use of cytostatics, pregnancy, malnutrition.
VITAMIN B12
Also known as cyanocobalamin, water soluble (water soluble). It 'important for the production of genetic material into cells and therefore for growth and development, for the production of red blood cells in bone marrow and a normal nervous system activity. Foods rich in this vitamin are liver, kidney, chicken, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy products. Normal range: 200-900 ml mcg/100 (microgrammi/100 milliliters). Values \u200b\u200babove normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or vitaminizzanti.Valori below normal (hypovolaemia) may be caused by pernicious anemia by enteropathy, liver disease, pregnancy, chronic renal failure, malnutrition, gastric resection (total or partial surgical removal of the stomach, parietal cells of the fundus of the stomach produces intrinsic factor needed to absorb vitamin B12).
VITAMIN C
Also known as ascorbic acid, soluble in water (water soluble). It 'important to growth and good preservation of bone, teeth, gums, ligaments and blood vessels, the body's immune response to infection, for the healing of wounds and absorption of iron from the digestive tract. The main sources are fruits and dried vegetables, citrus fruits, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, peppers, strawberries and melons are particularly rich sources. Normal values: 0.5-1.5 mg/100 ml (milliliters milligrammi/100). Values \u200b\u200babove normal (hypervitaminosis) showed signs of toxicity may be caused by excessive introduction with food or vitaminizing. Values \u200b\u200bbelow normal (hypovitaminosis) may be caused by anemia, hemorrhage, infectious diseases, by malnutrition, osteoporosis, rickets, scurvy.
VITAMIN D
Also called calciferol, fat-soluble (fat soluble). It helps regulate the balance of calcium and phosphorus, promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestine and is essential for healthy bones and teeth. The main sources are milk, fatty fish such as sardines, herring, salmon and tuna, liver, dairy and egg yolk. Normal values: 10-30 mg / ml (micro grams). Values \u200b\u200bhigher than normal (hypervitaminosis) may result from excessive introduction with food or vitamins, hypercalcaemia, from less than iperostosi.Valori normal ones (hypovitaminosis) can be sustained in the course of renal failure, osteomalacia, rickets in, in tetany.
VITAMIN E
Term used to describe a group of substances of which the most important is alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is essential for the protection of cell structure, for maintaining the activity of some enzymes and the formation of red blood cells and protects the lungs and other tissues from damage caused by pollutants and prevents the destruction of red blood cells by toxic substances in the blood. Among the main dietary sources include vegetable oils, nuts, meat, vegetables green leaves, cereals, wheat germ, and egg yolk. Normal values: 0.8 to 1.5 mg / dl.Valori higher than normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or vitaminizing. Values \u200b\u200bbelow normal (hypovitaminosis) may be caused by malnutrition, malabsorption.
VITAMIN H
part of the complex of vitamins B.4 also called biotin. E 'is essential for the activity of several enzymes involved in the cleavage of fatty acids and carbohydrates and the elimination of waste products division of proteine.E' found in many foods: liver, peanuts, dried beans, egg yolk , mushrooms, bananas, grapefruits and angurie.Valori normal: 70-100 ng/100ml (nanograms). Values \u200b\u200babove the normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive input with food or vitaminizing. Lower values \u200b\u200b(hypovitaminosis) to normal can be determined from malnutrition and malabsorption.
VITAMIN K
Anenadione, fat soluble (fat soluble). E 'essential for the formation in the liver of substances that promote blood clotting. The main dietary sources are green leafy vegetables (cabbage, broccoli and turnip greens), vegetable oils, egg yolk, cheese, pork and fegato.Valori normal: 15-30 mg/100 ml ( micrograms). Values \u200b\u200babove normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction with food or with use of vitaminizing. Values \u200b\u200blower than the normal (hypovitaminosis) can be determined by altering the intestinal flora, liver cirrhosis, jaundice, from ulcerative colitis, malabsorption.

Oniacina VITAMIN PP (nicotinamide). E 'soluble in water (water soluble). Performs an essential function in the activities of the nervous system and digestive system in the production of sex hormones and maintaining a healthy skin. The main dietary sources are liver, lean meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, fruit nuts and dried beans. Normal values: 0.5 to 0.8 mg/100 ml.Valori higher than normal (hypervitaminosis) may be caused by excessive introduction vitaminizzanti.Valori with food or with lower than normal (hypovolaemia) may be caused by alcoholism, malabsorption, malnutrition, by use of antibiotics and sulfonamides.
ZINC
essential element for normal growth, development of the genital organs, the normal activity of the prostate, wound healing, production of proteins controls the activity of more than 100 enzymes and is involved in functioning of insulin. Small amounts of this element are present in many foods such as lean meat, bread and grains, dried beans and sea food. Normal values: 80-160 mg/100 ml (micrograms). Values \u200b\u200babove normal can be determined from osteosarcoma; 10g.Valori lethal dose lower than normal may be caused by AIDS, alopecia, dermatitis, diabetes mellitus, leukemia by lymphoma.

0 comments:

Post a Comment